Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

PTSD is an extreme stress response following exposure to a single or multiple series of events that overwhelm the individuals ability to cope

Common symptoms include:

  • Nightmares & Flashbacks - a re-experiencing/reliving of the event that led to the development of PTSD.

  • Exaggerated responses to images, sounds smells that are reminders of the event.

  • Feeling emotionally numb.

  • Avoidance of emotions, thoughts, conversations, people, places activities that are reminders of the event.

  • Increased emotional arousal e.g. Anger outbursts, irritability, insomnia, hyper-vigilance,  difficulty concentrating, startling easily

  • Anxiety

  • Opportunistic illnesses

  • Chronic pain

  • Social isolation

Common sources of trauma inducing events include:

  • Accidents

  • Physical, Sexual & Emotional abuse (Childhood & Adult)

  • Domestic violence

  • Traumatic birth

  • Severe illness or injury

  • Bereavement

  • An act of physical violence

  • Workplace bullying

  • Witnessing a trauma inducing event

  • Combat exposure


Physiological Symptoms e.g.

Sweating, Racing heart,

Nausea, Shaking or trembling, Tingling,


Hot  & Cold flushes, 

Shortness of breath

Many Common Life Events Cause PTSD